Bibliografía

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A continuación citamos varios artículos de tipo científico, los cuales demuestran la evidencia científica que hay sobre la demostración de los efectos del ejercicio sobre los lesionados medular:

(1) Harvey L. Información preliminar. Tratamiento de la lesión medular.Guía para fisioterapeutas. 1st ed. Barcelona (Spain): ELSevier; 2010. p. 3-33.

(2) Alcobendas M. Conceptos generales sobre el síndrome de lesión medular. Lesión Medular. Enfoque multidisciplinario. 1ª ed. Buenos Aires- Madrid: Panamericana; 2009. p. 3-10.

(3) Mazaira J, La Banda F, Romero J, Garcia M, Gambarrutta C, Sánchez A. Epidemiología de la lesión medular y otros aspectos. Rehabilitación 1998;32(6):365-72.

(4) Institut Guttmann (Dept. Interior Servei de Trànsit, Generalitat de Catalunya). “Sinistralitat i Discapacitat, algunes dades esfereïdores”. 2004; Available at: http://www.guttmann.com.

(5) Alcaraz Rousselet M, Mazaira J. Epidemiología. Lesión Medular:Enfoque multidisciplinario Buenos Aires-Madrid: Panamericana; 2009. p. 11-17.

(6) Leicht C, Perret C. Comparison of blood lactate elimination in individuals with paraplegia and able-bodied individuals during active recovery from exhaustive exercise. J.Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31(1):60-64.

(7) Adams MM, Ditor DS, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM, McCartney N, Hicks AL. The effect of body weight-supported treadmill training on muscle morphology in an individual with chronic, motor-complete spinal cord injury: A case study. J.Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(2):167-171.

(8) Lidal IB, Veenstra M, Hjeltnes N, Biering-Sorensen F. Health-related quality of life in persons with long-standing spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2008 Nov;46(11):710-715.

(9) Hicks AL, Martin KA, Ditor DS, Latimer AE, Craven C, Bugaresti J, et al. Long-term exercise training in persons with spinal cord injury: effects on strength, arm ergometry performance and psychological well-being. Spinal Cord 2003 Jan;41(1):34-43.

(10) Vidal J. Tratamiento neurorrehabilitador de la lesión medular postraumática. Traumatismo Raquimedular. 1ª ed. Madrid (Spain): Diaz de Santos; 2010. p. 325-336.

(11) Vidal J, Medina J, Javierre C, Morales A, Barbany JR, Suarez A, et al. Response to Exercise in Paraplegics and Able Bodied Subjects: A New Formula to Estimate the Theoretical Oxygen Uptake. J Sport Rehabil. 2006;15:228-236.

(12) Astorino TA, Harness ET. Substrate metabolism during exercise in the spinal cord injured. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol. 2009 May;106(2):187-193.

(13) Carlson KF, Wilt TJ, Taylor BC, Goldish GD, Niewoehner CB, Shamliyan TA, et al. Effect of exercise on disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in adults with traumatic spinal cord injury: systematic review of the evidence. J.Spinal Cord Med. 2009;32(4):361-378.

(14) Kjaer M, Dela F, Sorensen FB, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Mohr T, et al. Fatty acid kinetics and carbohydrate metabolism during electrical exercise in spinal cord-injured humans. Am.J.Physiol.Regul.Integr.Comp.Physiol. 2001 Nov;281(5):R1492-8.

(15) Goktepe AS, Tugcu I, Yilmaz B, Alaca R, Gunduz S. Does standing protect bone density in patients with chronic spinal cord injury? J.Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31(2):197-201.

(16) Giangregorio L, McCartney N. Bone loss and muscle atrophy in spinal cord injury: epidemiology, fracture prediction, and rehabilitation strategies. J.Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(5):489-500.

(17) Siegenthaler MM, Berchtold NC, Cotman CW, Keirstead HS. Voluntary running attenuates age-related deficits following SCI. Exp.Neurol. 2008 Mar;210(1):207-216.

(18) Lynskey JV, Belanger A, Jung R. Activity-dependent plasticity in spinal cord injury. J.Rehabil.Res.Dev. 2008;45(2):229-240.

(19) Dunlop SA. Activity-dependent plasticity: implications for recovery after spinal cord injury. Trends Neurosci. 2008 Aug;31(8):410-418.

(20) Jayaraman A, Shah P, Gregory C, Bowden M, Stevens J, Bishop M, et al. Locomotor training and muscle function after incomplete spinal cord injury: case series. J.Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31(2):185-193.

(21) Gomez-Pinilla F, Ying Z, Roy RR, Hodgson J, Edgerton VR. Afferent input modulates neurotrophins and synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord. J.Neurophysiol. 2004 Dec;92(6):3423-3432.

(22) Rossignol S. Plasticity of connections underlying locomotor recovery after central and/or peripheral lesions in the adult mammals. Philos.Trans.R.Soc.Lond.B.Biol.Sci. 2006 Sep 29;361(1473):1647-1671.

(23) Gomez-Pinilla F, Ying Z, Roy RR, Molteni R, Edgerton VR. Voluntary exercise induces a BDNF-mediated mechanism that promotes neuroplasticity. J.Neurophysiol. 2002 Nov;88(5):2187-2195.

(24) Courtine G, Gerasimenko Y, van den Brand R, Yew A, Musienko P, Zhong H, et al. Transformation of nonfunctional spinal circuits into functional states after the loss of brain input. Nat.Neurosci. 2009 Oct;12(10):1333-1342.

(25) Alcobendas M, Lopez E, Esclarin de Ruz A, Valdizán MC. Entrenamiento de la marcha en lesiones medulares incompletas con soporte del peso corporal. Rev Neurol 2004;39(5):406-410.

(26) Forrest GF, Sisto SA, Barbeau H, Kirshblum SC, Wilen J, Bond Q, et al. Neuromotor and musculoskeletal responses to locomotor training for an individual with chronic motor complete AIS-B spinal cord injury. J.Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31(5):509-521.

(27) Dietz V, Harkema SJ. Locomotor activity in spinal cord-injured persons. J.Appl.Physiol. 2004 May;96(5):1954-1960.

(28) Johnston TE, Smith BT, Oladeji O, Betz RR, Lauer RT. Outcomes of a home cycling program using functional electrical stimulation or passive motion for children with spinal cord injury: a case series. J.Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31(2):215-221.

(29) Hamid S, Hayek R. Role of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation and regeneration after spinal cord injury: an overview. Eur.Spine J. 2008 Sep;17(9):1256-1269.

(30) Field-Fote EC. Spinal cord control of movement: implications for locomotor rehabilitation following spinal cord injury. Phys.Ther. 2000 May;80(5):477-484.

(31) Norrie BA, Nevett-Duchcherer JM, Gorassini MA. Reduced functional recovery by delaying motor training after spinal cord injury. J.Neurophysiol. 2005 Jul;94(1):255-264.

(32) de la Lama A, Varela P, Regueira M. Aspectos generales de los traumatismos raquimedulares. Traumatismo Raquimedular. 1ª ed. Madrid (Spain): Díaz de Santos; 2010. p. 1-15.

(33) Harness ET, Yozbatiran N, Cramer SC. Effects of intense exercise in chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2008 Nov;46(11):733-737.

(34) Associació Mèdica Mundial (AAM). Declaració de Hèlsinky. 1964; Available at: http://www.wma.net/s/policy/pdf/17c.pdf.

(35) Natale A, Taylor S, LaBarbera J, Bensimon L, McDowell S, Mumma SL, et al. SCIRehab Project series: the physical therapy taxonomy. J.Spinal Cord Med. 2009;32(3):270-282.

(36) Kirshblum SC, Priebe MM, Ho CH, Scelza WM, Chiodo AE, Wuermser LA. Spinal cord injury medicine. 3. Rehabilitation phase after acute spinal cord injury. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 2007 Mar;88(3 Suppl 1):S62-70.

(37) Harvey L. Tratamiento de la Lesión Medular.Guía para fisioterapeutas. 1ª ed. Barcelona (Spain): ELSevier Churchill Livingstone; 2010.

(38) Álvarez Velasco, Salinero Perez. Tratamiento de Fisioterapia en el Lesionado Medular. (Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos de Toledo.).